Summary of Awards to Date

Evaluation of amphibians and reptiles as potential reservoirs of foodborne pathogens and risk reduction to protect fresh produce and the environment.


Jan. 1, 2011 - Dec. 31, 2011

Award Number


Amount Awarded



Michele Jay-Russell, Ph.D.
University of California, Davis


X. Li, R. Atwill, R. Mandrell


Our proposal will help the leafy greens produce industry determine if wild amphibians
(frogs, toads) and reptiles (lizards, snakes) are potential carriers of E. coli 0157:H7 and
Salmonella in the central California coast produce production region. We will identify
management practices and prevention strategies that reduce the risk of contamination of leafy
greens and nearby waterways by these species. Statistical procedures and epidemiological
methods will be used to complete three objectives: 1) determine if wild amphibians and
reptiles are reservoirs of E. coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella in the central California coast; 2)
identify farm production practices, environmental factors and control strategies that reduce the
risk of contamination from amphibian and reptile species in the leafy greens produce growing
environment, and 3) extend knowledge of preventing produce contamination by amphibians
and reptiles to the produce community. The science-based data from this study will support
co-management to promote both food safety and environmental goals in the central California
coast. Specifically, the results will improve pre-season and pre-harvest environmental
assessments and interventions as required in the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA)
metrics, in particular those addressing animal intrusions.