Knowledge Transfer Task Force

Article 16 - Cyclospora: What can the produce industry do now?

July 10, 2021

Related Resources:
Kniel - Analysis of the presence of Cyclospora in waters of the Mid-Atlantic States and evaluation of removal and inactivation by filtration
Lenaghan - Determination of physical and chemical mechanisms to prevent Cyclospora infection
Lopez - Cyclospora prevalence in irrigation water in fresh produce growing regions in Arizona
Mattioli - Sources and prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis in Southeastern US water sources and growing environments
Ortega - The prevalence of Cyclospora in water and produce

This article originally appeared in Produce Processing, and is reprinted here with permission. © 2021 Produce Processing

The intestinal parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis is a growing food safety priority for the fresh produce industry. C. cayetanensis is the only Cyclospora species that causes illness in humans.

While these illnesses were long associated with imported produce grown with unsanitary water in tropical environments, recently outbreaks have been tied to U.S.-grown produce. The pathogen is only found in small numbers — and doesn’t replicate — outside its human hosts, making studying it difficult. Much is unknown about how to prevent cyclospora from contaminating fresh produce.

On June 15, Center for Produce Safety hosted a forum for the fresh produce supply chain on C. cayetanensis. CPS began funding parasite research in 2015 and cyclospora-specific research in 2017, investing $2 million in industry funds to date to answer industry’s questions.  

So what do we know?

Some highlights from CPS’s forum are:

What do we do now?

Testing for Cyclospora on raw or finished produce has little value, akin to looking for a needle in a haystack given the very low levels it is found in food.  

For now, we have two powerful tools. The first is sanitation best practices.

The most effective way to control cyclospora is to keep human feces from contaminating production environments. Fecal-contaminated surface irrigation waters can transmit cyclospora to crops. Fecal contamination of workers’ boots, gloves and harvest tools, or post-harvest equipment, may also be paths. Handwashing by employees who have product contact is paramount. Properly maintain and sanitize portable toilets, and avoid sewage leaks near fields.  Monitor for flooding of nearby sewage systems.

The path forward: Research

The second tool is continuing research and education. Future consumer confidence depends on our entire supply chain doing our level best to learn about, and eventually control, this pathogen.

CPS-funded studies are mapping C. cayetanensis in domestic agricultural waters. We are proud of the work these scientists are doing, including Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Mia Mattioli, Ph.D., University of Arizona’s Gerardo Lopez, Ph.D., University of Delaware’s Kniel and University of Georgia’s Ynes Ortega, Ph.D.

Two additional projects will begin in January 2022. USDA Agricultural Research Service’s Benjamin Rosenthal, Ph.D., will evaluate how effectively filters can remove parasites from irrigation water. Purdue University’s Lia Stanciu, Ph.D., will seek to develop a simple, paper-based colorimetric test to detect C. cayetanensis in the field.

To catch up on the latest science about C. cayetanensis and fresh produce, watch the June 15 forum recording via CPS’s website, There you can also learn more about the research mentioned here, and CPS’s other produce-specific studies. CPS will hold a second forum Sept. 8, offering an even deeper dive into the known science for food safety professionals.


— Mike Joyner is a member of Center for Produce Safety’s board of directors and president of the Florida Fruit & Vegetable Association. The Florida fruit and vegetable industry has supported CPS produce safety research since CPS was founded.